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JMIR Formative Research (JFR) (a sister journal of J Med Internet Res (JMIR) and JMIR mHealth & uHealth, the leading eHealth and mHealth journals by impact factor) publishes peer-reviewed, openly accessible papers containing results from process evaluations, feasibility/pilot studies and other kinds of formative research and preliminary results. While the original focus was on the design of medical and health-related research and technology innovations, JFR publishes studies from all areas of medical and health research.
Formative research is research that occurs before a program is designed and implemented, or while a program is being conducted. Formative research can help
Many funding agencies will expect some sort of pilot/feasibility/process evaluation before funding a larger study such as a Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT).
Formative research should be an integral part of developing programs or adapting programs, and should be used while the program is on-going to help refine and improve program activities. Thus, formative evaluation can and should also occur in form of a process evaluation alongside a summative evaluation such as a RCT.
This journal fills an important gap in the academic journals landscape, as it publshes sound and peer-reviewed formative research that is criticial for investigators to apply for further funding, but that is usually not published in outcomes-focussed medical journals aiming for impact and generalizability.
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Background: As mobile devices are becoming ubiquitous, technology-based interventions provide a promising strategy to positively influence health behaviors of families with young children. However, qu...
Background: As mobile devices are becoming ubiquitous, technology-based interventions provide a promising strategy to positively influence health behaviors of families with young children. However, questions remain about the feasibility and acceptability of intervention delivery via mobile apps in low-income, rural settings and among families with preschoolers. Objective: The aims of this study were to understand the content and context of preschooler’s mobile device; explore parent beliefs on this topic, including the acceptability of intervention delivery via mobile devices; and to test a prototype of an app to encourage preschoolers’ physical activity with both parents and children. Methods: Parents (n=29) were recruited from five preschool centers in eastern, rural Colorado to complete a semi-structured telephone interview regarding preschooler’s mobile device use. A second sample of parents (n=31) were recruited from the same preschool centers to view the app prototype independently and provide feedback. A third sample of preschool children (n=24) were videotaped using the app in small groups to measure engagement and record their responses to the app. Results: Five key content areas emerged from the telephone interviews: 1) mobile devices are an important part of families’ everyday routines and parents have parameters governing their use; 2) parents often use mobile devices as a tool for behavior management; 3) parents clearly distinguish between mobile device use for learning vs entertainment; 4) parents have an overarching desire for balance in regards to their child’s mobile device use; and 5) parents were generally supportive of the idea of using mobile apps for intervention delivery. From the app prototype testing with parents, participants reacted positively to the app and felt that it would be useful in a variety of situations. Testing with preschoolers showed the children were highly engaged with the app and on average, moved actively for 74% of the movement time, or just over 2 minutes, each time they used the app. Conclusions: Mobile devices are already integrated into most families’ daily routines and appear to be an acceptable method of intervention delivery in low-income, rural, Colorado families. The physical activity app represents an innovative way to reach these families and, with further improvements based on participant feedback, will provide children a unique opportunity to practice key movement skills.
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Background: Informed consent has considerable clinical, ethical, and legal implications for patient safety and liability. Advances in multimedia technology increased the utilization of multimedia pati...
Background: Informed consent has considerable clinical, ethical, and legal implications for patient safety and liability. Advances in multimedia technology increased the utilization of multimedia patient decision aids (PtDA) to supplement the conventional informed consent process. Little information is available about the use of multimedia PtDAs in the consent process for therapeutic invasive procedures such as the peripherally inserted central venous catheter (PICC). Additionally, none of the available studies have designed their multimedia PtDAs based on the patients’ information needs and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ’s) comprehensive guide for informed consent. Objective: This paper describes a patient-centered, systematic, multidisciplinary approach to develop, implement, and evaluate an effective multimedia PtDA to reform the informed consent process of a PICC procedure for patients in 10 acute and intensive care units. Methods: The development, implementation, and evaluation processes of the PtDA followed the phases described in the Multimedia Production Framework: preproduction (planning), production (filming), and postproduction (testing and editing). Within this Framework, the Criteria for Judging the Quality of PtDAs developed by the International Collaboration for PtDA Standards were applied. The methodology for improving the informed consent process was guided by the AHRQ’s Making Informed Consent an Informed Choice comprehensive guide, the AHRQ’s Health Literacy Universal Precautions Toolkit Guide, and the AHRQ’s Patient Education Materials Assessment Tool Guide for Audio/Video Materials. Conclusions: PtDAs are recommended tools to supplement the informed consent process of treatment procedures. Well-designed PtDAs can eliminate many limitations of the conventional consent process by ensuring comprehensive, standardized, and easy to comprehend information about therapeutic procedures and treatment options and providing sufficient time for the patients to reflect on the information. To be effective, PtDAs should follow a systematic, patient-centered, evidence-based, and rigorous approach in the development, implementation, and evaluation processes. Including key stakeholders such as leaders, clinicians, and patients is fundamental for the success of PtDAs.
Background: Executive functions are higher cognitive control functions, consisting of inhibitory control, working memory, and cognitive flexibility, and are central to academic performance, and a heal...