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JMIR Formative Research (JFR) (a sister journal of J Med Internet Res (JMIR) and JMIR mHealth & uHealth, the leading eHealth and mHealth journals by impact factor) publishes peer-reviewed, openly accessible papers containing results from process evaluations, feasibility/pilot studies and other kinds of formative research and preliminary results. While the original focus was on the design of medical and health-related research and technology innovations, JFR publishes studies from all areas of medical and health research.
Formative research is research that occurs before a program is designed and implemented, or while a program is being conducted. Formative research can help
Many funding agencies will expect some sort of pilot/feasibility/process evaluation before funding a larger study such as a Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT).
Formative research should be an integral part of developing programs or adapting programs, and should be used while the program is on-going to help refine and improve program activities. Thus, formative evaluation can and should also occur in form of a process evaluation alongside a summative evaluation such as a RCT.
This journal fills an important gap in the academic journals landscape, as it publishes sound and peer-reviewed formative research that is criticial for investigators to apply for further funding, but that is usually not published in outcomes-focussed medical journals aiming for impact and generalizability.
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Background: While we know that many young people watch online pornography and engage in ‘sexting’, there is limited literature examining their needs in relation to information on these highly sens...
Background: While we know that many young people watch online pornography and engage in ‘sexting’, there is limited literature examining their needs in relation to information on these highly sensitive and complex issues. Online resources exist, however, we can find no evidence of any having been formally tested for usability within the target population. Objective: The objective of this study was to test the usability of a resource about online pornography and sexting among young people. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 participants aged 15-29 years old. Results: We found that the “SCOPE” resource was perceived as trustworthy and credible due to its evidence based content, non-judgmental tone, and balanced perspectives. Multi-media and video content enhanced the layout and usability of the resource, however content relevance could be improved by targeting age and developmental stages. Participants identified resource sections like “Real Stories” from young people as relevant and engaging. However, they raised issues with the translation of formative research findings relating to these stories into their final presentation. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that young people prefer online resources about complex issues like online pornography and sexting if they are balanced in content and tone. Most importantly, in the context of responding to complex and sensitive issues such as these, co-design methods can ensure that young people are central to the development of resources and avoid gaps in translating research into practice. In the context of limited literature focusing on the usability of online resources about these topics, this paper provides important insights for public health practitioners working in this emerging space. Clinical Trial: NA
Background: A blockchain is a digitised, decentralised, distributed public ledger; a shared and synchronised database that records cryptocurrency transactions. Despite the shift towards digital platfo...
Background: A blockchain is a digitised, decentralised, distributed public ledger; a shared and synchronised database that records cryptocurrency transactions. Despite the shift towards digital platforms enabled by Electronic Medical Records (EMRs), demonstrating a will to reform the healthcare sector, health systems face issues including security, interoperability, data fragmentation, timely access to patient data and silos. Application of healthcare blockchains could enable data interoperability, enhancement of precision medicine and reduction in prescription frauds through implementing novel methods in access and patient consent. Objective: To summarise the evidence on the strategies and frameworks utilised to implement blockchains for patient data in healthcare to ensure privacy and improve interoperability and scalability. Methods: A systematic search of MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, Scopus, ProQuest Technology Collection and Engineering Index (Compendex) has been conducted. Results: This early report summarises key findings from that review for dissemination and discussion. 16 design trade-offs in blockchain implementation have been identified from the existing literature. Conclusions: There is more work that is necessary to thoroughly analyse blockchain trade-off research: While this study was able to identify trade-offs, being able to quantify the mathematical relationships between trade-offs would be of enormous benefit to the field. Clinical Trial: International Prospective Register for Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) number CRD42018096947.
Background: Background: The unprecedented number of youth engaged in nonmedical use of prescription opioids (PO), as well as the myriad negative consequences of such misuse emphasize the importance of...
Background: Background: The unprecedented number of youth engaged in nonmedical use of prescription opioids (PO), as well as the myriad negative consequences of such misuse emphasize the importance of prevention efforts targeting this public health crisis. Although there are several science-based, interactive, drug-abuse prevention programs focused on preventing use of non-prescription drugs in youth, to our knowledge, there are no science-based, interactive programs focused on the prevention of prescription opioid abuse among adolescents. Objective: Objectives: The aim of this study was to develop and conduct a formative evaluation of a science-based, interactive web-based program focused on the prevention of prescription opioid abuse among adolescents aged 12-17 (Pop4Teens.c4tbh.org). This work was conducted to prepare for a randomized, controlled trial designed to evaluate the effectiveness of Pop4Teens compared to an active control website, JustThinkTwice.com (Drug Enforcement Administration) in impacting knowledge and attitudes about prescription opioids, perceptions of risk associated with abuse of prescription opioids, as well as intentions to use and actual use of prescription opioids. Methods: Methods: We conducted six focus groups with 30 youth (M = 5/group: 12-19 years of age eligible) along a continuum of exposure to POs (in treatment for opioid use disorder, in general treatment for other substance use disorder, prescribed an opioid, and opioid naïve), and writing sessions with 30 youth in treatment for opioid use disorder (12-19) to inform the development of the web-based prevention tool. Feasibility and acceptability of a prototype of the web-based intervention were then assessed through individual feedback sessions with 57 youth (drawn from same populations as focus groups). Results: Results: We successfully completed the development of a web-based prescription opioid abuse prevention program (Pop4Teens). Analyses of focus group transcripts informed the development of the program (e.g., quiz content/format, script writing, story editing). Selected writing session narratives anchored the planned scientific content by lending credibility, as well as informing the development of compelling storylines intended to motivate youth to engage with the program. Feedback session data indicate that the web-based tool could be potentially useful and acceptable. Also, feedback session participants demonstrated significant increases in their knowledge of key topics related to the prevention of prescription opioid abuse after exposure to sections of the web-based program. Conclusions: Conclusions: The opioid crisis is predicted to get worse before it gets better. An effective response will likely require a multi-pronged strategy inclusive of effective evidence-based prevention programs acceptable to, and accessible by, a majority of youth. Clinical Trial: NA