Published on in Vol 5 , No 5 (2021) :May

Preprints (earlier versions) of this paper are available at, first published .
Evidence of Human-Level Bonds Established With a Digital Conversational Agent: Cross-sectional, Retrospective Observational Study

Evidence of Human-Level Bonds Established With a Digital Conversational Agent: Cross-sectional, Retrospective Observational Study

Evidence of Human-Level Bonds Established With a Digital Conversational Agent: Cross-sectional, Retrospective Observational Study


  1. Beatty C, Malik T, Meheli S, Sinha C. Evaluating the Therapeutic Alliance With a Free-Text CBT Conversational Agent (Wysa): A Mixed-Methods Study. Frontiers in Digital Health 2022;4 View
  2. Brown J, Halpern J. AI chatbots cannot replace human interactions in the pursuit of more inclusive mental healthcare. SSM - Mental Health 2021;1:100017 View
  3. Ollier J, Nißen M, von Wangenheim F. The Terms of “You(s)”: How the Term of Address Used by Conversational Agents Influences User Evaluations in French and German Linguaculture. Frontiers in Public Health 2022;9 View
  4. He Y, Yang L, Zhu X, Wu B, Zhang S, Qian C, Tian T. Mental Health Chatbot for Young Adults With Depressive Symptoms During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Single-Blind, Three-Arm Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2022;24(11):e40719 View
  5. Prochaska J, Vogel E, Chieng A, Baiocchi M, Pajarito S, Pirner M, Darcy A, Robinson A. A relational agent for treating substance use in adults: Protocol for a randomized controlled trial with a psychoeducational comparator. Contemporary Clinical Trials 2023;127:107125 View
  6. Lim J, Hong M, Lam W, Zhang Z, Teo Z, Liu Y, Ng W, Foo L, Ting D. Novel technical and privacy-preserving technology for artificial intelligence in ophthalmology. Current Opinion in Ophthalmology 2022;33(3):174 View
  7. Wilson L, Marasoiu M. The Development and Use of Chatbots in Public Health: Scoping Review. JMIR Human Factors 2022;9(4):e35882 View
  8. Lin A, Trappey C, Luan C, Trappey A, Tu K. A Test Platform for Managing School Stress Using a Virtual Reality Group Chatbot Counseling System. Applied Sciences 2021;11(19):9071 View
  9. Tran A, Pallant J, Johnson L. Exploring the impact of chatbots on consumer sentiment and expectations in retail. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 2021;63:102718 View
  10. Chiauzzi E, Robinson A, Martin K, Petersen C, Wells N, Williams A, Gleason M. A Relational Agent Intervention for Adolescents Seeking Mental Health Treatment: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial. JMIR Research Protocols 2023;12:e44940 View
  11. Shah J, DePietro B, D'Adamo L, Firebaugh M, Laing O, Fowler L, Smolar L, Sadeh‐Sharvit S, Taylor C, Wilfley D, Fitzsimmons‐Craft E. Development and usability testing of a chatbot to promote mental health services use among individuals with eating disorders following screening. International Journal of Eating Disorders 2022;55(9):1229 View
  12. Tong F, Lederman R, D'Alfonso S, Berry K, Bucci S. Digital Therapeutic Alliance With Fully Automated Mental Health Smartphone Apps: A Narrative Review. Frontiers in Psychiatry 2022;13 View
  13. Neumann I, Käthner I, Gromer D, Pauli P. Impact of perceived social support on pain perception in virtual reality. Computers in Human Behavior 2023;139:107490 View
  14. Sedlakova J, Trachsel M. Conversational Artificial Intelligence in Psychotherapy: A New Therapeutic Tool or Agent?. The American Journal of Bioethics 2023;23(5):4 View
  15. Nißen M, Rüegger D, Stieger M, Flückiger C, Allemand M, v Wangenheim F, Kowatsch T. The Effects of Health Care Chatbot Personas With Different Social Roles on the Client-Chatbot Bond and Usage Intentions: Development of a Design Codebook and Web-Based Study. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2022;24(4):e32630 View
  16. Khanna R, Robinson N, O’Donnell M, Eyre H, Smith E. Affective Computing in Psychotherapy. Advances in Psychiatry and Behavioral Health 2022;2(1):95 View
  17. Fuchs T. Understanding Sophia? On human interaction with artificial agents. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 2022 View
  18. Hayakawa M, Watanabe O, Shiga K, Fujishita M, Yamaki C, Ogo Y, Takahashi T, Ikeguchi Y, Takayama T. Exploring types of conversational agents for resolving cancer patients’ questions and concerns: Analysis of 100 telephone consultations on breast cancer. Patient Education and Counseling 2023;106:75 View
  19. Boucher E, Harake N, Ward H, Stoeckl S, Vargas J, Minkel J, Parks A, Zilca R. Artificially intelligent chatbots in digital mental health interventions: a review. Expert Review of Medical Devices 2021;18(sup1):37 View
  20. Morrow E, Zidaru T, Ross F, Mason C, Patel K, Ream M, Stockley R. Artificial intelligence technologies and compassion in healthcare: A systematic scoping review. Frontiers in Psychology 2023;13 View
  21. Trappey A, Lin A, Hsu K, Trappey C, Tu K. Development of an Empathy-Centric Counseling Chatbot System Capable of Sentimental Dialogue Analysis. Processes 2022;10(5):930 View
  22. Balcombe L, De Leo D. Human-Computer Interaction in Digital Mental Health. Informatics 2022;9(1):14 View
  23. Mateos-Sanchez M, Melo A, Blanco L, García A. Chatbot, as Educational and Inclusive Tool for People with Intellectual Disabilities. Sustainability 2022;14(3):1520 View
  24. Darcy A, Beaudette A, Chiauzzi E, Daniels J, Goodwin K, Mariano T, Wicks P, Robinson A. Anatomy of a Woebot® (WB001): agent guided CBT for women with postpartum depression. Expert Review of Medical Devices 2022;19(4):287 View
  25. Kettle L, Lee Y. User Experiences of Well-Being Chatbots. Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 2023:001872082311624 View
  26. Tong F, Lederman R, D'Alfonso S, Berry K, Bucci S. Conceptualizing the digital therapeutic alliance in the context of fully automated mental health apps: A thematic analysis. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy 2023 View
  27. Ivarsson J, Lindwall O. Suspicious Minds: the Problem of Trust and Conversational Agents. Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) 2023 View
  28. He Y, Yang L, Qian C, Li T, Su Z, Zhang Q, Hou X. Conversational Agent Interventions for Mental Health Problems: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2023;25:e43862 View
  29. Vagwala M, Asher R. Conversational Artificial Intelligence and Distortions of the Psychotherapeutic Frame: Issues of Boundaries, Responsibility, and Industry Interests. The American Journal of Bioethics 2023;23(5):28 View
  30. Castro O, Mair J, Salamanca-Sanabria A, Alattas A, Keller R, Zheng S, Jabir A, Lin X, Frese B, Lim C, Santhanam P, van Dam R, Car J, Lee J, Tai E, Fleisch E, von Wangenheim F, Tudor Car L, Müller-Riemenschneider F, Kowatsch T. Development of “LvL UP 1.0”: a smartphone-based, conversational agent-delivered holistic lifestyle intervention for the prevention of non-communicable diseases and common mental disorders. Frontiers in Digital Health 2023;5 View
  31. Chaturvedi R, Verma S, Das R, Dwivedi Y. Social companionship with artificial intelligence: Recent trends and future avenues. Technological Forecasting and Social Change 2023;193:122634 View

Books/Policy Documents

  1. Chatterjee L, Sengupta R. Digital Identity in the New Era of Personalized Medicine. View
  2. Bickmore T, O'Leary T. Digital Therapeutics for Mental Health and Addiction. View
  3. Kaveladze B, Schueller S. Digital Therapeutics for Mental Health and Addiction. View
  4. Kuhlmeier F, Gnewuch U, Lüttke S, Brakemeier E, Mädche A. The Transdisciplinary Reach of Design Science Research. View
  5. Harmon S, Gale H, Dermendzhiyska E. Interactive Storytelling. View
  6. Ashcroft A, Ashcroft A. Trends, Applications, and Challenges of Chatbot Technology. View