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JMIR Formative Research


Journal Description

JMIR Formative Research (JFR) (a sister journal of J Med Internet Res (JMIR) and JMIR mHealth & uHealth, the leading eHealth and mHealth journals by impact factor) publishes peer-reviewed, openly accessible papers containing results from process evaluations, feasibility/pilot studies and other kinds of formative research and preliminary results. While the original focus was on the design of medical and health-related research and technology innovations, JFR publishes studies from all areas of medical and health research.

Formative research is research that occurs before a program is designed and implemented, or while a program is being conducted. Formative research can help

  • define and understand populations in need of a intervention or public health program
  • create programs that are specific to the needs of those populations
  • ensure programs are acceptable and feasible to users before launching
  • improve the relationship between users and agencies/research groups
  • demonstrate the feasibility, use, satisfaction with, or problems with a program before large-scale summative evaluation (looking at health outcomes)

Many funding agencies will expect some sort of pilot/feasibility/process evaluation before funding a larger study such as a Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT).

Formative research should be an integral part of developing programs or adapting programs, and should be used while the program is on-going to help refine and improve program activities. Thus, formative evaluation can and should also occur in form of a process evaluation alongside a summative evaluation such as a RCT.

This journal fills an important gap in the academic journals landscape, as it publishes sound and peer-reviewed formative research that is criticial for investigators to apply for further funding, but that is usually not published in outcomes-focussed medical journals aiming for impact and generalizability.


Recent Articles:

  • Source: Image created by the Authors; Copyright: The Authors; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Investigating Associations Between Changes in Mobile Phone Use and Emotions Using the Experience Sampling Method: Pilot Study


    Background: The use of mobile phones has become, especially for young people, an integrated part of everyday life. Using the experience sampling method (ESM) may provide further insight on the association between mobile phone use and mental health. Objective: The objective of this study was to examine associations between mobile phone use and subtle changes in mental state. Methods: The ESM-based PsyMate app was installed on the mobile phones of 2 healthy 20-year-old participants. Over a period of 3 months, participants rated their mental states at 10 semirandom moments in the flow of daily life. Each assessment included present state emotions, environmental circumstances, and phone use. Results: Multilevel regression analyses indicated that an increase in mobile phone use was associated with a small increase in negative affect (particularly feeling bored and feeling lonely; P<.001) and small decreases in positive affect (P=.002) and concentration (P=.001). Treating the data as 2 separate N=1 studies revealed that the association with negative affect was present in both participants, whereas the associations with positive affect and concentration were evident in only 1 of the 2 participants. Conclusions: This pilot study suggests that mobile phone use may be associated with person-specific and group-level changes in emotional state. A larger study is required to study these associations, possible causality, and factors driving underlying heterogeneity in the pattern of associations. Trial registration: NCT03221985; (archived by WebCite at

  • eWall in use. Source: Image created by the Authors; Copyright: The Authors / Roessingh Research and Development; URL:; License: Licensed by JMIR.

    Understanding the Acceptance of an eHealth Technology in the Early Stages of Development: An End-User Walkthrough Approach and Two Case Studies


    Background: Studies that focus on the acceptance of an electronic health (eHealth) technology generally make use of surveys. However, results of such studies hold little value for a redesign, as they focus only on quantifying end-user appreciation of general factors (eg, perceived usefulness). Objective: We present a method for understanding end-user acceptance of an eHealth technology, early in the development process: The eHealth End-User Walkthrough. Methods: During a walkthrough, a participant is guided by using the technology via a scenario, a persona, and a low-fidelity protoype. A participant is questioned about factors that may affect acceptance during and after the demonstration. We show the value of the method via two case studies. Results: During the case studies, participants commented on whether they intend to use a technology and why they would (not) use its main features. They also provided redesign advice or input for additional functions. Finally, the sessions provide guidance for the generation of business models and implementation plans. Conclusions: The eHealth End-User Walkthrough can aid design teams in understanding the acceptance of their eHealth application in a very early stage of the design process. Consequently, it can prevent a mismatch between technology and end-users’ needs, wishes and context.

  • Group work at a workshop. Source: Shutterstock; Copyright: Chaay_Tee; URL:; License: Licensed by the authors.

    Developing Technology to Mobilize Personal Strengths in People with Chronic Illness: Positive Codesign Approach


    Background: Emerging research from psychology and the bio-behavioral sciences recognizes the importance of supporting patients to mobilize their personal strengths to live well with chronic illness. Positive technology and positive computing could be used as underlying design approaches to guide design and development of new technology-based interventions for this user group that support mobilizing their personal strengths. Objective: A codesigning workshop was organized with the aim to explore user requirements and ideas for how technology can be used to help people with chronic illness activate their personal strengths in managing their everyday challenges. Methods: Thirty-five participants from diverse backgrounds (patients, health care providers, designers, software developers, and researchers) participated. The workshop combined principles of (1) participatory and service design to enable meaningful participation and collaboration of different stakeholders and (2) an appreciative inquiry methodology to shift participants’ attention to positive traits, values, and aspects that are meaningful and life-giving and stimulate participants’ creativity, engagement, and collaboration. Utilizing these principles, participants were engaged in group activities to develop ideas for strengths-supportive tools. Each group consisted of 3-8 participants with different backgrounds. All group work was analysed using thematic analyses. Results: Participants were highly engaged in all activities and reported a wide variety of requirements and ideas, including more than 150 personal strength examples, more than 100 everyday challenges that could be addressed by using personal strengths, and a wide range of functionality requirements (eg, social support, strength awareness and reflection, and coping strategies). 6 concepts for strength-supportive tools were created. These included the following: a mobile app to support a person to store, reflect on, and mobilize one’s strengths (Strengths treasure chest app); “empathy glasses” enabling a person to see a situation from another person’s perspective (Empathy Simulator); and a mobile app allowing a person to receive supportive messages from close people in a safe user-controlled environment (Cheering squad app). Suggested design elements for making the tools engaging included: metaphors (eg, trees, treasure island), visualization techniques (eg, dashboards, color coding), and multimedia (eg, graphics). Maintaining a positive focus throughout the tool was an important requirement, especially for feedback and framing of content. Conclusions: Combining participatory, service design, and appreciative inquiry methods were highly useful to engage participants in creating innovative ideas. Building on peoples’ core values and positive experiences empowered the participants to expand their horizons from addressing problems and symptoms, which is a very common approach in health care today, to focusing on their capacities and that which is possible, despite their chronic illness. The ideas and user requirements, combined with insights from relevant theories (eg, positive technology, self-management) and evidence from the related literature, are critical to guide the development of future more personalized and strengths-focused self-management tools.

  • A proactive text messaging program for primary care patients who smoke (montage). Source: The Authors /; Copyright: The Authors; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution + Noncommercial + NoDerivatives (CC-BY-NC-ND).

    Feasibility of a Proactive Text Messaging Intervention for Smokers in Community Health Centers: Pilot Study


    Background: Few smokers receive evidence-based cessation services during primary care visits. Objective: We aimed to assess the feasibility of a proactive text messaging program for primary care patients who smoke. Methods: We used electronic health records to identify smokers who had a mobile phone number listed from two community health centers in Massachusetts. Between March 2014 and June 2015, patients were screened by their primary care physician and then sent a proactive text message inviting them to enroll by texting back. Patients who opted in were asked about their readiness to quit. The text message program included messages from the QuitNowTXT library and novel content for smokers who were not ready to quit. Results: Among 949 eligible smokers, 88 (9.3%) enrolled after receiving a single proactive text message. Compared with those who did not enroll, enrollees were more often female (54/88, 61% vs 413/861, 48.0%, P=.02), but otherwise did not differ in age, race, insurance status, or comorbidities. In all, 28% (19/67) of enrollees reported they were not ready to quit in the next 30 days, 61% (41/67) were ready to quit, and 11% (7/67) already quit. The median time in the program was 9 days (interquartile range 2-32 days). Of current smokers, 25% (15/60) sent one or more keyword requests to the server. These did not differ by readiness to quit. Conclusions: A proactively delivered text messaging program targeting primary care patients who smoke was feasible and engaged both smokers ready to quit and those not ready to quit. This method shows promise as part of a population health model for addressing tobacco use outside of the primary care office.

  • Source: Flickr; Copyright: Thomas Hawk; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution + Noncommercial (CC-BY-NC).

    A Multimedia Support Skills Intervention for Female Partners of Male Smokeless Tobacco Users: Use and Perceived Acceptability


    Background: UCare is a new multimedia (website+booklet) intervention for women who want their male partner to quit their use of smokeless tobacco. The intervention is based on research showing that perceived partner responsiveness to social support is highest when the supporter conveys respect, understanding, and caring in their actions. The website included both didactic and interactive features, with optional video components, and special activities to help women develop empathy for nicotine addiction. The booklet reinforced the website content, encouraged women to use the website, and served both as a physical reminder of the intervention and a convenient way to share the information with her partner. Objective: The objective of this study was to describe the utilization and acceptability of a multimedia intervention among women seeking to support their partner in quitting smokeless tobacco. Lessons learned with respect to design considerations for online interventions are also summarized. Methods: We present the evaluation of the intervention components’ use and usefulness in a randomized trial. Results: In the randomized clinical trial, more than 250,000 visits were made to the website in a 2-year period, with the vast majority from mobile devices. Of the 552 women randomized to receive the intervention, 96.9% (535/552) visited the website at least once, and 30.8% (170/552) completed the core website component, “The Basics.” About half of the women (287/552) used the interactive “Take Notes” feature, and 37% (204/552) used the checklists. Few women used the post-Basics features. At 6 weeks, 40.7% (116/285) reported reading the printed and mailed booklet. Website and booklet use were uncorrelated. User ratings for the website and booklet were positive overall. Conclusions: Intervention website designers should consider that many users will access the program only once or twice, and many will not complete it. It is also important to distinguish between core and supplemental features and to consider whether the primary purpose is training or support. Furthermore, printed materials still have value. Trial Registration: NCT01885221; (Archived by WebCite at

  • How the decision aid is accessible on different devices (eg, an iPad). Source: Randers Regional Hospital; Copyright: Helle Brandstup Larsen; URL:; License: Licensed by the authors.

    Developing a Self-Administered Decision Aid for Fecal Immunochemical Test–Based Colorectal Cancer Screening Tailored to Citizens With Lower Educational...


    Background: Citizens with lower educational attainments (EA) take up colorectal cancer screening to a lesser degree, and more seldom read and understand conventional screening information than citizens with average EAs. The information needs of citizens with lower EA are diverse, however, with preferences ranging from wanting clear recommendations to seeking detailed information about screening. Decision aids have been developed to support citizens with lower EA in making informed decisions about colorectal cancer screening participation, but none embrace diverse information needs. Objective: The aim of this study was to develop a self-administered decision aid for participation in fecal immunochemical test–based colorectal cancer screening. The decision aid should be tailored to citizens with lower EA and should embrace diverse information needs. Methods: The Web-based decision aid was developed according to an international development framework, with specific steps for designing, alpha testing, peer reviewing, and beta testing the decision aid. In the design phase, a prototype of the decision aid was developed based on previous studies about the information needs of lower EA citizens and the International Patient Decision Aid Standards guidelines. Alpha testing was conducted using focus group interviews and email correspondence. Peer review was conducted using email correspondence. Both tests included both lower EA citizens and health care professionals. The beta testing was conducted using telephone interviews with citizens with lower EA. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results: The developed decision aid presented information in steps, allowing citizens to read as much or as little as wanted. Values clarification questions were included after each section of information, and answers were summarized in a “choice-indicator” on the last page, guiding the citizens toward a decision about screening participation. Statistics were presented in both natural frequencies, absolute risk formats and graphically. The citizens easily and intuitively navigated around the final version of the decision aid and stated that they felt encouraged to think about the benefits and harms of colorectal cancer screening without being overloaded with information. They found the decision aid easy to understand and the text of suitable length. The health care professionals agreed with the citizens on most parts; however, concerns were raised about the length and readability of the text. Conclusions: We have developed a self-administered decision aid presenting information in steps. We involved both citizens and health care professionals to target the decision aid for citizens with lower EA. This decision aid represents a new way of communicating detailed information and may be able to enhance informed choices about colorectal cancer screening participation among citizens with lower EA.

  • Source: Mélanie Bérubé /; Copyright: JMIR Publications; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    A Hybrid Web-Based and In-Person Self-Management Intervention Aimed at Preventing Acute to Chronic Pain Transition After Major Lower Extremity Trauma:...


    Background: A transition from acute to chronic pain frequently occurs after major lower extremity trauma. While the risk factors for developing chronic pain in this population have been extensively studied, research findings on interventions aiming to prevent chronic pain in the trauma context are scarce. Therefore, we developed a hybrid, Web-based and in-person, self-management intervention to prevent acute to chronic pain transition after major lower extremity trauma (iPACT-E-Trauma). Objective: This study aimed to assess the feasibility and acceptability of iPACT-E-Trauma. Methods: Using a descriptive design, the intervention was initiated at a supra-regional level-1 trauma center. Twenty-eight patients ≥18 years old with major lower extremity trauma, presenting with moderate to high pain intensity 24 hours post-injury were recruited. Feasibility assessment was two-fold: 1) whether the intervention components could be provided as planned to ≥80% of participants and 2) whether ≥80% of participants could complete the intervention. The rates for both these variables were calculated. The E-Health Acceptability Questionnaire and the Treatment Acceptability and Preference Questionnaire were used to assess acceptability. Mean scores were computed to determine the intervention’s acceptability. Results: More than 80% of participants received the session components relevant to their condition. However, the Web pages for session 2, on the analgesics prescribed, were accessed by 71% of participants. Most sessions were delivered according to the established timeline for ≥80% of participants. Session 3 and in-person coaching meetings had to be provider earlier for ≥35% of participants. Session duration was 30 minutes or less on average, as initially planned. More than 80% of participants attended sessions and <20% did not apply self-management behaviors relevant to their condition, with the exception of deep breathing relaxation exercises which was not applied by 40% of them. Web and in-person sessions were assessed as very acceptable (mean scores ≥3 on a 0 to 4 descriptive scale) across nearly all acceptability attributes. Conclusions: Findings showed that the iPACT-E-Trauma intervention is feasible and was perceived as highly acceptable by participants. Further tailoring iPACT-E-Trauma to patient needs, providing more training time for relaxation techniques, and modifying the Web platform to improve its convenience could enhance the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. Trial Registration: International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN): 91987302; (Archived by WebCite at

  • Source: Freepik; Copyright: Dragana Gordic; URL:; License: Licensed by JMIR.

    MedFit App, a Behavior-Changing, Theoretically Informed Mobile App for Patient Self-Management of Cardiovascular Disease: User-Centered Development


    Background: The MedFit app is designed to facilitate participation of people with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in an exercise-based rehabilitation program remotely. This paper details the development for the MedFit app. Objective: The aim of this research was to develop a behavior change, theoretically informed exercise rehabilitation mobile app for adults with CVD by following the early stages of the formative research: development and feasibility testing. Methods: Adhering to the mobile health (mHealth) development evaluation framework, the stages of the formative research process including (1) development and (2) feasibility were undertaken. The content and format of the MedFit app were developed based on (1) theory, (2) usability testing, and (3) content design. Results: A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to identify the most appropriate theories from which to develop the app. This led to the creation of the MedFit app. The app went through iterative rounds of usability focus group testing with adults with CVD to provide feedback on the app. This process was framed by the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology model. Feedback was then translated into feasible technical improvements to be executed through close collaboration with the technical team, who adapted and made modifications to the app based on this codesign process. Conclusions: The formative research process of the app development involved theoretical underpinning, usability testing, and content design. mHealth interventions may play a key role in the future of health care, potentially addressing the barriers to participation in cardiac rehabilitation. This work will provide guidance for future research aiming to develop mobile apps by incorporating a best practice framework for mHealth intervention development and a user-centered design approach.

  • Source: Unsplash; Copyright: ALP STUDIO; URL:; License: Licensed by JMIR.

    User-Centered Design of a Mobile App for Weight and Health Management in Adolescents With Complex Health Needs: Qualitative Study


    Background: Growing research has been conducted into the deployment and evaluation of mobile technology interventions for weight management in adolescents. However, no work has yet been conducted toward the development of these technologies for adolescents with complex health needs receiving specialized tertiary-level health care. Objective: The aim of this study was to conduct a user-centered needs assessment of adolescents interested in weight management with complex health needs requiring specialized health care services, their parents, and health care providers (HCPs) to inform the design and development of a mobile app for weight and health management. Methods: A qualitative study design was employed. Participants were recruited from two tertiary health care centers. Separate audiotaped focus group interviews were conducted with adolescents aged 12 to 18 years, parents, and HCPs. Interviews were transcribed, and field notes were collected by research staff. Iterative simple content analysis was performed independently by 4 research team members using computer software NVivo (QSR International) 10.0. Results: A total of 19 adolescents, 16 parents, and 21 HCPs were interviewed. Qualitative analysis revealed seven major themes related to app functionality: healthy eating, social support, self-monitoring, communicating with HCPs, supporting mental health, gamification and incentives, and user interface (UI) design. Adolescents provided several ideas related to each feature, whereas parents’ views focused on assistance with meal planning and greater access to HCPs. HCPs viewed the app as a novel and more acceptable platform to connect remotely with adolescents than conventional methods. They also strongly endorsed the value of social support capabilities and the ability to connect with an HCP. Conclusions: This is the first study to conduct a qualitative needs assessment in adolescents receiving specialized health care services toward the design of a mobile app for weight and health management. Our results indicate that core components of the app should include tailored meal recommendations and assistance with meal planning, social networking for peer support, customized and convenient tracking, remote access to HCPs, features to support mental health, and an attractive and engaging UI. These findings will be used to develop and evaluate a mobile app targeting adolescents with complex health needs.

  • Source:; Copyright: Kate Mangostar; URL: woman phone&page=3&position=14; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    A Spiritually-Based Text Messaging Program to Increase Cervical Cancer Awareness Among African American Women: Design and Development of the CervixCheck...


    Background: Although Hispanic women have the highest cervical cancer incidence rate, African American women account for a disproportionate burden of cervical cancer incidence and mortality when compared with non-Hispanic white women. Given that religion occupies an essential place in African American lives, delivering health messages through a popular communication delivery channel and framing them with important spiritual themes may allow for a more accessible and culturally appropriate approach to promoting cervical cancer educational content to African American women. Objective: The aim of this paper was to describe the design and development of the CervixCheck project, a spiritually based short message service (SMS) text messaging pilot intervention to increase cervical cancer awareness and Papanicolaou test screening intention among church-attending African American women aged 21 to 65 years. Methods: Through focus group interviews (n=15), formative research was conducted to explore facilitators, motivators, and barriers to cervical cancer screening. The interviews were also used to identify logistical factors that should be considered when developing the CervixCheck intervention. Culturally appropriate and spiritually grounded SMS text messages were developed based on the analysis of focus group data and the review of previous studies that incorporated technology into health behavior change interventions. After the CervixCheck intervention was developed, cognitive response interviews (n=8) were used to review the content of the SMS text messaging library, to ensure that the content was acceptable and understandable, particularly for church-attending African American women aged 21 to 65 years. Results: Design and development of the SMS text messages involved consideration of the content of the messages and technological specifications. Focus group participants overwhelmingly reported cell phone use and an interest in receiving spiritually based SMS text messages on cervical cancer prevention and early detection. Findings from the cognitive response interviews revealed that the content of the SMS text messaging library was acceptable and understandable with the target population. The revised SMS text messaging library currently includes 22 messages for delivery over 16 days, averaging 11 texts per week, with no more than two messages delivered per day. Initial usability testing also showed early feasibility. Conclusions: The design and development of the CervixCheck intervention provides important insight into what may be considered an overlooked minority population and missed opportunity in health information technology research. With increased internet penetration through the use of mobile phones, it is appropriate to investigate the viability of technology as a means to reach minority communities and to reduce health disparities.

  • Source:; Copyright: yanalya; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Factors Affecting Patient Portal Use Among Low-Income Pregnant Women: Mixed-Methods Pilot Study


    Background: Patient portals offer patients personalized and secure Web access to their medical information and enable patients to manage their health care online. However, there is a lack of information about patient acceptance and use of patient portals among low-income pregnant women. Objective: This formative research aims to assess the potential of a patient portal, MyChart, for improving prenatal health care and pregnancy outcomes, and identify the barriers and facilitators of MyChart use among low-income pregnant women. Methods: A mixed-methods study was conducted with a convenience sample of 18 low-income pregnant women comprising low- and high-risk patients enrolled in a prenatal clinic in eastern North Carolina. MyChart use, patient demographics, and pregnancy information were collected by reviewing electronic medical charts. Health literacy was measured. Reported use and attitudes toward MyChart were collected using a semi-structured interview. Results: Although 39% (7/18) of participants interviewed signed up for MyChart, only 22% (4/18) of them became active users. Another 33% (6/18) had never heard of MyChart or was unsure of how to access it. Users primarily accessed test results and appointment schedules. The main facilitating factors for patient portal use were information and motivation from health care providers and concerns about pregnancy due to a history of miscarriage. Reported barriers were lack of educational resources, lack of care provider encouragement, and technical difficulties possibly exacerbated by low health literacy. Participants also suggested improvements for MyChart, especially the provision of discussion-based support for pregnant women. Conclusions: The one-time verbal introduction of MyChart does not meet current patients’ needs. Data reveal the need for more consistent patient education and support programs, tailored to patients’ previous pregnancy histories. The clinic also needs to facilitate better provider-patient communication about the importance of MyChart use.

  • Source: Wikicommons; Copyright: Sigismund von Dobschütz; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution + ShareAlike (CC-BY-SA).

    A Web-Based Platform for People With Memory Problems and Their Caregivers (CAREGIVERSPRO-MMD): Mixed-Methods Evaluation of Usability


    Background: The increasing number of people with dementia (PwD) drives research exploring Web-based support interventions to provide effective care for larger populations. In this concept, a Web-based platform (CAREGIVERSPRO-MMD, 620911) was designed to (1) improve the quality of life for PwD, (2) reduce caregiver burden, (3) reduce the financial costs for care, and (4) reduce administration time for health and social care professionals. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the usability and usefulness of CAREGIVERSPRO-MMD platform for PwD or mild cognitive impairment (MCI), informal caregivers, and health and social care professionals with respect to a wider strategy followed by the project to enhance the user-centered approach. A secondary aim of the study was to collect recommendations to improve the platform before the future pilot study. Methods: A mixed methods design was employed for recruiting PwD or MCI (N=24), informal caregivers (N=24), and professionals (N=10). Participants were asked to rate their satisfaction, the perceived usefulness, and ease of use of each function of the platform. Qualitative questions about the improvement of the platform were asked when participants provided low scores for a function. Testing occurred at baseline and 1 week after participants used the platform. The dropout rate from baseline to the follow-up was approximately 10% (6/58). Results: After 1 week of platform use, the system was useful for 90% (20.75/23) of the caregivers and for 89% (5.36/6) of the professionals. When users responded to more than 1 question per platform function, the mean of satisfied users per function was calculated. These user groups also provided positive evaluations for the ease of use (caregivers: 82%, 18.75/23; professionals: 97%, 5.82/6) and their satisfaction with the platform (caregivers: 79%, 18.08/23; professionals: 73%, 4.36/6). Ratings from PwD were lower than the other groups for usefulness (57%, 13/23), ease of use (41%, 9.4/23), and overall satisfaction (47%, 11/23) with the platform (P<.05). Qualitative comments related to both improvements for functionality and the platform interface. Conclusions: Although caregivers and professionals were overall satisfied with the platform, further adaptations were recommended by PwD. This reiterates the importance of the involvement of end users in the development of Web-based interventions. Recommendations from users in this paper apply for the interface and functionality of a wider range of Web-based support interventions.

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  • Assessing the Perceptions of Inspiratory Muscle Training in Children with Cystic Fibrosis and their Multidisciplinary Team

    Date Submitted: Jun 4, 2018

    Open Peer Review Period: Jun 4, 2018 - Jul 30, 2018

    Background: Little is known about the opinions or perceived benefits of an inspiratory muscle training (IMT) intervention in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and their multi-disciplinary team (MDT). Obje...

    Background: Little is known about the opinions or perceived benefits of an inspiratory muscle training (IMT) intervention in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and their multi-disciplinary team (MDT). Objective: The aim of this qualitative study was to examine patients and MDT's views on IMT to inform and tailor future interventions. Methods: Individual, semi-structured interviews were conducted to evaluate participant's perspectives of a 4-week IMT intervention. Eight of the 13 involved in the IMT programme (5 children; 11-14 years; two physiotherapists; one respiratory physician) participated. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, analysed using thematic analyses and then coded into relevant themes. Results: Four key themes emerged: acceptability, facilitators, barriers and recommendations. Whilst fun, enjoyment and improved perceived physical ability were reported by children and their MDT following the IMT programme, the MDT identified factors such as time and cost as key barriers. Conclusions: A short IMT programme was perceived to have positive effects on the physical ability and psychosocial health of children of children with CF. These findings highlight the importance of obtaining participant and MDT perceptions and recommendations to ensure the efficacy and optimal design of future IMT protocols.

  • Online-Delivered Multi-Media Training Materials for the Self-Collection of Dried Blood Spots

    Date Submitted: May 10, 2018

    Open Peer Review Period: May 14, 2018 - Jul 9, 2018

    Background: Dried blood spots (DBS) have been increasingly used in biomedical research as an objective measure for variables that are typically plagued by self-report, such as smoking status. The deve...

    Background: Dried blood spots (DBS) have been increasingly used in biomedical research as an objective measure for variables that are typically plagued by self-report, such as smoking status. The development of training materials for the self-collection of DBS that can be delivered online would allow for broader use of this methodology. Objective: The goal of this project was to develop and evaluate multi-media training materials delivered online to allow for the remote self-collection of DBS. Methods: We recruited participants via Facebook for two studies. In Study 1, we evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of our newly developed DBS training materials. In Study 2, we examined the feasibility of implementing this protocol within a larger online study. Results: In Study 1 participants (n=115) were, on average, 26.1±6.4 years of age. Participants who used the training materials produced useable samples (96% collected DBS were useable). Self-collection of DBS also was feasible as 98% of participants were willing to collect DBS again. In Study 2, assessing implementation, our response rate was 25% (41/164) with non-responders significantly younger than responders were (22.0±0.4 years vs. 20.3±0.2 years, P<.001) and 92% of DBS were useable by the lab. Conclusions: Overall, while the protocol is acceptable, feasible, and produced useable samples, additional work is needed to improve response rates.

  • Mobile Device Use among Rural, Low-Income Families and the Feasibility of an App to Encourage Preschooler’s Physical Activity: A Qualitative Study

    Date Submitted: Apr 24, 2018

    Open Peer Review Period: Apr 24, 2018 - Jun 19, 2018

    Background: As mobile devices are becoming ubiquitous, technology-based interventions provide a promising strategy to positively influence health behaviors of families with young children. However, qu...

    Background: As mobile devices are becoming ubiquitous, technology-based interventions provide a promising strategy to positively influence health behaviors of families with young children. However, questions remain about the feasibility and acceptability of intervention delivery via mobile apps in low-income, rural settings and among families with preschoolers. Objective: The aims of this study were to understand the content and context of preschooler’s mobile device; explore parent beliefs on this topic, including the acceptability of intervention delivery via mobile devices; and to test a prototype of an app to encourage preschoolers’ physical activity with both parents and children. Methods: Parents (n=29) were recruited from five preschool centers in eastern, rural Colorado to complete a semi-structured telephone interview regarding preschooler’s mobile device use. A second sample of parents (n=31) were recruited from the same preschool centers to view the app prototype independently and provide feedback. A third sample of preschool children (n=24) were videotaped using the app in small groups to measure engagement and record their responses to the app. Results: Five key content areas emerged from the telephone interviews: 1) mobile devices are an important part of families’ everyday routines and parents have parameters governing their use; 2) parents often use mobile devices as a tool for behavior management; 3) parents clearly distinguish between mobile device use for learning vs entertainment; 4) parents have an overarching desire for balance in regards to their child’s mobile device use; and 5) parents were generally supportive of the idea of using mobile apps for intervention delivery. From the app prototype testing with parents, participants reacted positively to the app and felt that it would be useful in a variety of situations. Testing with preschoolers showed the children were highly engaged with the app and on average, moved actively for 74% of the movement time, or just over 2 minutes, each time they used the app. Conclusions: Mobile devices are already integrated into most families’ daily routines and appear to be an acceptable method of intervention delivery in low-income, rural, Colorado families. The physical activity app represents an innovative way to reach these families and, with further improvements based on participant feedback, will provide children a unique opportunity to practice key movement skills.