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JMIR Formative Research (JFR) (a sister journal of J Med Internet Res (JMIR) and JMIR mHealth & uHealth, the leading eHealth and mHealth journals by impact factor) publishes peer-reviewed, openly accessible papers containing results from process evaluations, feasibility/pilot studies and other kinds of formative research and preliminary results. While the original focus was on the design of medical and health-related research and technology innovations, JFR publishes studies from all areas of medical and health research.
Formative research is research that occurs before a program is designed and implemented, or while a program is being conducted. Formative research can help
Many funding agencies will expect some sort of pilot/feasibility/process evaluation before funding a larger study such as a Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT).
Formative research should be an integral part of developing programs or adapting programs, and should be used while the program is on-going to help refine and improve program activities. Thus, formative evaluation can and should also occur in form of a process evaluation alongside a summative evaluation such as a RCT.
This journal fills an important gap in the academic journals landscape, as it publshes sound and peer-reviewed formative research that is criticial for investigators to apply for further funding, but that is usually not published in outcomes-focussed medical journals aiming for impact and generalizability.
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Background: Informed consent has considerable clinical, ethical, and legal implications for patient safety and liability. Advances in multimedia technology increased the utilization of multimedia pati...
Background: Informed consent has considerable clinical, ethical, and legal implications for patient safety and liability. Advances in multimedia technology increased the utilization of multimedia patient decision aids (PtDA) to supplement the conventional informed consent process. Little information is available about the use of multimedia PtDAs in the consent process for therapeutic invasive procedures such as the peripherally inserted central venous catheter (PICC). Additionally, none of the available studies have designed their multimedia PtDAs based on the patients’ information needs and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ’s) comprehensive guide for informed consent. Objective: This paper describes a patient-centered, systematic, multidisciplinary approach to develop, implement, and evaluate an effective multimedia PtDA to reform the informed consent process of a PICC procedure for patients in 10 acute and intensive care units. Methods: The development, implementation, and evaluation processes of the PtDA followed the phases described in the Multimedia Production Framework: preproduction (planning), production (filming), and postproduction (testing and editing). Within this Framework, the Criteria for Judging the Quality of PtDAs developed by the International Collaboration for PtDA Standards were applied. The methodology for improving the informed consent process was guided by the AHRQ’s Making Informed Consent an Informed Choice comprehensive guide, the AHRQ’s Health Literacy Universal Precautions Toolkit Guide, and the AHRQ’s Patient Education Materials Assessment Tool Guide for Audio/Video Materials. Conclusions: PtDAs are recommended tools to supplement the informed consent process of treatment procedures. Well-designed PtDAs can eliminate many limitations of the conventional consent process by ensuring comprehensive, standardized, and easy to comprehend information about therapeutic procedures and treatment options and providing sufficient time for the patients to reflect on the information. To be effective, PtDAs should follow a systematic, patient-centered, evidence-based, and rigorous approach in the development, implementation, and evaluation processes. Including key stakeholders such as leaders, clinicians, and patients is fundamental for the success of PtDAs.
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Background: Executive functions are higher cognitive control functions, consisting of inhibitory control, working memory, and cognitive flexibility, and are central to academic performance, and a heal...