JMIR Formative Research

Process evaluations, early results, and feasibility/pilot studies of digital and non-digital interventions

Editor-in-Chief:

Gunther Eysenbach, MD, MPH, FACMI


Recent Articles

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Formative Evaluation of Digital Health Interventions

Anxiety is an extremely prevalent condition, and yet, it has received notably less attention than depression and other mental health conditions from a research, clinical, and public health perspective. The COVID-19 pandemic has only exacerbated growing concerns about the burden of anxiety due to the confluence of physical health risks, economic stressors, social isolation, and general disruption of daily activities.

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Formative Evaluation of Digital Health Interventions

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an inherited chronic condition that requires extensive daily care and quarterly clinic visits with a multidisciplinary care team. The limited exchange of information outside of the quarterly clinic visits impedes optimal disease self-management, patient engagement, and shared decision making.

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Formative Evaluation of Non-Ehealth Innovations

Health care workers are at the front line against COVID-19. The risk of transmission decreases with adequate knowledge of infection prevention methods. However, health care workers reportedly lack a proper attitude and knowledge of different viral outbreaks.

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Reviews on Usage or other Formative Evaluation Metrics

The REDUCE-RISK trial was set up to compare the effectiveness of weekly subcutaneously administered methotrexate with daily oral azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine in low-risk Crohn disease (CD) or subcutaneously administered adalimumab (ADA) in high-risk CD in a pediatric population (age 6-17 years).

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Formative Evaluation of Non-Ehealth Innovations

The COVID-19 pandemic is a severe global health crisis. Wearing a mask is a straightforward action that can be taken, but shortage of stock and equity of allocation were important issues in Taiwan. Furthermore, increased anxiety leading to the stockpiling of masks has been common during the pandemic.

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Formative Evaluation of Digital Health Interventions

An important aspect of patient-centered care involves ensuring that patient-directed resources are usable, understandable, and responsive to patients’ needs. A user-centered design refers to an empathy-based framework and an iterative design approach for developing a product or solution that is based on an in-depth understanding of users’ needs, values, abilities, and limitations.

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Formative Evaluation of Digital Health Interventions

Acute otitis media (AOM) is the most common pediatric bacterial ear infection. AOM presents challenges to parents who lack accurate information. Digital knowledge translation tools offer a promising approach to communicating complex health information. We developed AOM knowledge translation tools for Canadian parents and augmented them for Pakistani parent end users.

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Formative Evaluation of Digital Health Interventions

There is a growing need for cost-efficient and patient-centered approaches to support families in hospital- and community-based neurodevelopmental services. For such purposes, electronic data collection (EDC) may hold advantages over paper-based data collection. Such EDC approaches enable automated data collection for scoring and interpretation, saving time for clinicians and services and promoting more efficient service delivery.

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Formative Evaluation of Digital Health Interventions

Digital remote patient monitoring can add value to virtual wards; this has become more apparent in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Health care providers are overwhelmed, resulting in clinical teams spread more thinly. We aimed to assess the impact of introducing an app-based remote patient monitoring system (Huma Therapeutics) on a clinician’s workload in the context of a COVID-19–specific virtual ward.

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Formative Evaluation of Digital Health Interventions

Persistent genital arousal disorder/genito-pelvic dysesthesia (PGAD/GPD) is a highly distressing yet poorly understood condition characterized by persistent genito-pelvic sensations, often described as “genital arousal,” which occur in the absence of sexual desire. PGAD/GPD is associated with significant impairment in psychosocial and daily functioning; however, there are currently no empirically validated treatment algorithms for PGAD/GPD. Pelvic floor physical therapy exercises have been found to be effective at reducing other forms of genito-pelvic discomfort, such as vulvodynia, and may also be beneficial to those experiencing PGAD/GPD. Many individuals with PGAD/GPD report difficulty finding a health care provider who is knowledgeable about PGAD/GPD; therefore, pelvic floor education and exercises in an online format may have the potential to reach more individuals in need.

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Formative Evaluation of Digital Health Interventions

Telemedicine innovations are rarely adopted into routine health care, the reasons for which are not well understood. Teleguidance, a promising service for remote surgical guidance during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) was due to be scaled up, but there were concerns that user attitudes might influence adoption.

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Formative Evaluation of Digital Health Interventions

COVID-19 is an international health crisis of particular concern in the United States, which saw surges of infections with the lifting of lockdowns and relaxed social distancing. Young adults have proven to be a critical factor for COVID-19 transmission and are an important target of the efforts to contain the pandemic. Scalable digital public health technologies could be deployed to reduce COVID-19 transmission, but their use depends on the willingness of young adults to participate in surveillance.

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